Annex B Research Data

-Research on permanent marker: Qualification of a writing instrument as a permanent marker requires only two qualities: ingredient of either dyes or pigments, adherable to most surfaces, or water resistance. Permanent marker ink is expected to last from three to four months (on nonporous surfaces or exposed outdoors), to several years. Permanent marker ink is composed of three ingredients: colorant, solvent, and resin. Property of the solvent used: ability to evaporate quickly; transmit dyes or pigments to paper. Previously, solvents were composed of xylene or toluene, but currently, almost all permanent markers use alcohol as a solvent. [Why Are Permanent Markers Permanent?] -Research on polyester: Polyester is a term often defined as “long-chain polymers chemically composed of at least 85% by weight of an ester and a dihydric alcohol and a terephthalic acid”. In other words, it means the linking of several esters within the fibers. Reaction of alcohol with carboxylic acid results in the formation of esters. [What Is Polyester.] -Research on acetate: A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is cellulose acetate. Where not less than 92% of the hydroxyl groups are acetylated, the term triacetate may be used as a generic description of the fiber. Acetate is derived from cellulose by reacting purified cellulose from wood pulp with acetic acid and acetic anhydride in the presence of sulfuric acid. It is then put through a controlled, partial hydrolysis to remove the sulfate and a sufficient number of acetate groups to give the product the desired properties. The anhydroglucose unit, is the fundamental repeating structure of cellulose, has three hydroxyl groups which can react to form acetate esters. The most common form of cellulose acetate fiber has an acetate group on approximately two of every three hydroxyls. This cellulose diacetate is known as secondary acetate, or simply as “acetate”. After it is formed, cellulose acetate is dissolved in acetone for extrusion. As the filaments emerge from the spinneret, the solvent is evaporated in warm air (dry spinning), producing fine filaments of cellulose acetate. -Research on cotton: Cotton production is one of the major factors in world prosperity and economic stability. Since cotton wrinkles, polyester was added to give it wash and wear properties for a busy world. In recent times, the consumer determined that polyester, although easier to care for, took away the cool from cotton and also added a “pilling” effect to cotton/polyester blends. Consumers now often request “100% Cotton”. Permanent finishes also added to the all cotton fabric gave a wash and wear property to cotton. The cotton fiber is from the cotton plant’s seed pod The fiber is hollow in the center and, under a microscope looks like a twisted ribbon. “Absorbent” cotton will retain 24-27 times its own weight in water and is stronger when wet than dry. This fiber absorbs and releases perspiration quickly, thus allowing the fabric to “breathe”. Cotton can stand high temperatures and takes dyes easily. Chlorine bleach can be used to restore white garments to a clear white but this bleach may yellow chemically finished cottons or remove color in dyed cottons. Boiling and sterilizing temperatures can also be used on cotton without disintegration. Cotton can also be ironed at relatively high temperatures, stands up to abrasion and wears well. [Cotton: The cool, soft, comfortable, principal clothing fiber of the world.] Attributes of cotton: -cotton is a non-allergenic natural fibre that doesn’t irritate sensitive skin -cotton’s softness makes it a preferred fabric for underwear and other garments worn close to the skin -cotton’s adaptability allows it to blend easily with most other fibres including synthetics such as polyester and lycra and natural fibres like wool -cotton is one of the easiest fabrics to dye, because it’s white in colour and very absorbent -cotton has a high absorbency rate and holds up to 27 times its own weight in water -cotton becomes stronger when wet -cotton’s strength and absorbency make it an ideal fabric for medical and personal hygiene products such as bandages and swabs -cotton breathes easily as a result of its unique fibre structure. This attribute makes cotton more comfortable to wear than artificial fibres unable to provide ventilation -cotton keeps the body cool in summer and warm in winter because it is a good conductor of heat -cotton is often used in the manufacture of curtains, tents and tarpaulins as it is not easily damaged by sunlight -unlike synthetic fibres, cotton is a natural product and contains no chemicals -cotton is very versatile – it can be blended, coated, finished, is dry cleanable, machine washable and easy to print on Research on washing machine: Inside a washing machine, there is a block of concrete, which is there to balance the equally heavy electric motor, which drives a very heavy gearbox that is attached to the steel inner tub. There are lots of heavy components in a washing machine. The washing machine has two steel tubs. The inner tub is the one that holds the clothes. It has an agitator in the middle of it, and the sides are perforated with holes so that when the tub spins, the water can leave. The outer tub, which seals in all the water, is bolted to the body of the washer. Because the inner tub vibrates and shakes during the wash cycle, it has to be mounted in a way that lets it move around without banging into other parts of the machine. The inner tub is attached to the gearbox, which is attached to the black metal frame you see in the picture above. This frame holds the motor, gearbox and the concrete weight.

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