Annex A - Group Research Proposal

School of Science and Technology, Singapore
Investigative Skills in Science (Science)
S2-08 Group B Project Proposal
Sean Ng Kai Kiat, Tan Kian Shiong, James Lim Bing Jie, Cai Zhihan

Research essay:

1.Type of research adopted:
Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)

2.Title: Investigation on the effects of different amounts of detergents in removing marker stains, and acetate, polyester, and cotton's response to marker stain removal through detergent application.

2a.Question being addressed:

  • What is the relationship between the amount of detergent used and the amount of stain removed?
  • What is the relationship between the type of fabric and the amount of stain removed?

2b.Hypothesis 1: A higher amount of detergent used will result in more stain removed. 

2b.Hypothesis 2: The cleanest fabric will be polyester due to its low absorbency and loose arrangement of fiber, followed by acetate with its low absorbency but tighter arrangement of fiber; the dirtiest fabric will be cotton as it has the highest absorbency and a tight arrangement of fiber.

2c.Formulated research plan

Equipment list:
-Dynamo Complete Liquid Detergent (Refill pack - 1.7kg)
-Zebra Name Pen Fine x3
-Actane Fabric
-Cotton Fabric
-Polyester Fabric
-Washing Machine
-Enclosed box
-Handheld Torch (preferably high intensity for highest contrast)
-Lux Meter

Location required for experiment: Chemistry Laboratory

Independent Variables:
-Quantity of detergent
-Type of cloth.

Dependent Variables:
-Stain left on fabric

Consistent Variables
-Type of marker, Washing time

1.Coat all types of fabric with a layer of permanent marker ink
2.Apply different amount of detergent and wash it with the mini washing machine
3.Dry all washed fabrics
4.Create the test set-up illustrated in the diagram on the next page
5.Ensure single light source
6.Repeat step 4 with each type of tested fabric
7.Photograph fabrics from within container
8.Upload pictures into MacBook
9.Determine pictures’ colour values with “Preview”
10.Plot graph and create table for results tabulation

Data analysis
Photographs of the fabrics will be analysed with photo-editing application, plotting a graph based on light reception. Graph’s results will be recorded in a table. Comparison can therefore be made and hypothesis will be referred and checked for accuracy.

Detergent is dangerous if ingested and causes death.
Gloves must be worn when handling detergent, avoid eye and mouth contact
Permanent markers’ ink is dangerous for ingestion and scent might be toxic
Avoid facial contact with ink and never smell markers’ tip
Detergent spillage is inconvenient and might be a hazard
Ensure detergent packing is capped or sealed when not in use
Washing machines are dangerous if not handled properly
Ensure that an adult is supervising us when doing th experiment.
Exposure to direct light beam (especially high-powered) might cause blindness or eye injury
Refrain from pointing light source at face and ensure light source is turned off when not in use during experiment

Diagram of experiment proceduresScreen Shot 2015-01-22 at 10.50.33 am.png

Diagram of enclosed container and data analysis setupScreen Shot 2015-01-21 at 10.09.50 pm.png

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