1. Introduction

-Research on permanent marker: Qualification of a writing instrument as a permanent marker requires only two qualities: ingredient of either dyes or pigments, adherable to most surfaces, or water resistance. Permanent marker ink is expected to last from three to four months (on nonporous surfaces or exposed outdoors), to several years. Permanent marker ink is composed of three ingredients: colorant, solvent, and resin. Property of the solvent used: ability to evaporate quickly; transmit dyes or pigments to paper. Previously, solvents were composed of xylene or toluene, but currently, almost all permanent markers use alcohol as a solvent. [Why Are Permanent Markers Permanent?] Markers, or felt-tip pens, serve a variety of functions. Children use them to make bright, colorful drawings. The stereotypical teacher uses a glaring, unmistakable red felt-tip to grade papers. Retail employees, roadside vendors, performers, and protestors rely on the indelible, eye-catching shades and thick inking surface of these writing and drawing utensils to announce sales, prices, and productions, or to create strongly worded posterboard signs to convey dissatisfaction. Markers are also useful for permanently marking surfaces, which is often necessary for identification purposes—putting names on clothing tags, boxes, and tape which can be adhered to almost any item.


-Research on polyester: Polyester is a term often defined as “long-chain polymers chemically composed of at least 85% by weight of an ester and a dihydric alcohol and a terephthalic acid”. In other words, it means the linking of several esters within the fibers. Reaction of alcohol with carboxylic acid results in the formation of esters. [What Is Polyester.]


-Research on acetate: A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is cellulose acetate. Where not less than 92% of the hydroxyl groups are acetylated, the term triacetate may be used as a generic description of the fiber. Acetate is derived from cellulose by reacting purified cellulose from wood pulp with acetic acid and acetic anhydride in the presence of sulfuric acid. It is then put through a controlled, partial hydrolysis to remove the sulfate and a sufficient number of acetate groups to give the product the desired properties. The anhydroglucose unit, is the fundamental repeating structure of cellulose, has three hydroxyl groups which can react to form acetate esters. The most common form of cellulose acetate fiber has an acetate group on approximately two of every three hydroxyls. This cellulose diacetate is known as secondary acetate, or simply as “acetate”. After it is formed, cellulose acetate is dissolved in acetone for extrusion. As the filaments emerge from the spinneret, the solvent is evaporated in warm air (dry spinning), producing fine filaments of cellulose acetate.

-Research on cotton: Cotton production is one of the major factors in world prosperity and economic stability. Since cotton wrinkles, polyester was added to give it wash and wear properties for a busy world. In recent times, the consumer determined that polyester, although easier to care for, took away the cool from cotton and also added a “pilling” effect to cotton/polyester blends. Consumers now often request “100% Cotton”. Permanent finishes also added to the all cotton fabric gave a wash and wear property to cotton.  The cotton fiber is from the cotton plant’s seed pod The fiber is hollow in the center and, under a microscope looks like a twisted ribbon. “Absorbent” cotton will retain 24-27 times its own weight in water and is stronger when wet than dry. This fiber absorbs and releases perspiration quickly, thus allowing the fabric to “breathe”. Cotton can stand high temperatures and takes dyes easily. Chlorine bleach can be used to restore white garments to a clear white but this bleach may yellow chemically finished cottons or remove color in dyed cottons. Boiling and sterilizing temperatures can also be used on cotton without disintegration. Cotton can also be ironed at relatively high temperatures, stands up to abrasion and wears well. [Cotton: The cool, soft, comfortable, principal clothing fiber of the world.]


Independent variables: amount detergents, different type of cloth.

Dependent variables: Amount of cloth stains.
Dependent variables: Ration of light intensity that pass through cloth
R= (L1/L0) x 100%
100% - Clean
<20% - Dirty
Constants
1. Type of markers
2. Number of strokes
3. Washing Machine (time)

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